Until 1798, the health needs of Burlington County's unfortunate indigent were met by a designated Overseer of the Poor. In 1799 the county purchased a site for a facility, and in 1801 the 'Poor House' or the 'Almshouse' was completed.

The building grew incrementally, and the services provided evolved to meet the population's changing needs. In 1894 an ambitious project to enlarge the building began: the plans called for a four story, central building with wings on both ends. The new building was completed in 1900, and was called 'Burlington County Hospital for the Insane'.

In 1937 the Almshouse was destroyed by a devastating fire. The following year, the Buttonwood Hall for the Chronically Ill was built. An additional wing was added in 1946 by a private contractor. After several changes over the years, 'Buttonwood Hospital' was completed in 1986; by this time, the historical stigma of the ‘County Poor House’ began to fade.

Eventually, the facility evolved to consist of two distinct components: a 170 bed skilled nursing facility providing short-term care, rehabilitative therapy, and long-term care; as well as a 30 bed Acute Psychiatric Care Hospital. Despite the nature of these services, the name "Buttonwood Hospital" remained.

By the 1990’s Buttonwood Hospital had earned a reputation for quality healthcare as well as effective psychiatric treatment in a home-like atmosphere. The facility began to attract many referrals from the surrounding communities and hospitals.

Although Buttonwood Hospital had been owned and operated by Burlington County since its inception, spiraling operational costs made it untenable to continue. In 2012 the facility was purchased by Ocean Healthcare, a family owned and operated entity providing outstanding facility-based healthcare throughout New Jersey since 1973. Recognizing the very different scope of services provided  by each of the distinct components, they chose to restructure the former Buttonwood Hospital as two distinct entities, albeit under one roof.

The skilled nursing facility was named Aspen Hills Healthcare Center and the Acute Psychiatric Care Hospital was now called Buttonwood Behavioral Health Hospital.